The Philippine and U.S. Expanded Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA): An Analysis


  • Glenn G. Pajares University of San Jose-Recoletos
  • Marietta D. Bongcales University of San Jose-Recoletos



EDCA, Philippine Territorial Dispute, Philippine Foreign Relations, USPhilippine Relations, and International Relations


This study seeks to explain and analyze the behavior of the Philippines and The
United States in forging the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Treaty (EDCA). It employs International Relations theories namely Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism as frameworks of analysis and interpretation. In the perspective of realism, EDCA is a joint interest of the Philippines and US. EDCA is an act or move of the US as it balances China’s rise to power in order to avoid war and anarchy and protect US interest in the Asia Pacific region. EDCA serves as deterrence to China or to any would-be aggressor to the Philippines in the midst of territorial and maritime disputes. In the point of view of liberalism, the EDCA is a reaffirmation and the strengthening of the alliance of two democratic states promoting military, economic, civic, and humanitarian cooperation and interdependence. In the spirit of constructivism, EDCA is also a product of
democratic ideas and norms that the US and Philippines share as democratic states. The United States serves as a norm entrepreneur to the Philippines and other states in the Pacific Rim. Therefore, EDCA is necessary, practical, and beneficial to the Philippines and the United States.

Author Biographies

Glenn G. Pajares, University of San Jose-Recoletos

a graduate of A.B. Classical Philosophy (cum laude) from Sacred Heart Seminary, Palo, Leyte in the year 2000. He finished his Master of Arts in Philosophy in 2002 from the University of San Carlos, Cebu City. He garnered the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Philosophy from the same University in 2006. He is an assistant professor and the Chair of the Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy of the College of Arts and Sciences of the University of San Jose-Recoletos from 2007 to the present. Currently, he is pursuing the degree Doctor of Arts in Literature and Communication at the Cebu Normal University.

Marietta D. Bongcales, University of San Jose-Recoletos

English  is the secretary of the College of Arts and Sciences and a part-time language teacher of the Department of Languages and Literature.

She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in English with concentration in Marketing Studies (AB LIACOM) degree and finished her Master of Arts in English from the University of San Jose-Recoletos. She obtained her TESOL Certificate course from the international TESOL Education & Consultancy Corp. (ITECC) in November at the University of San Jose-Recoletos. She is a candidate of PhD in English Language degree.

Ms. Bongcales is also an editor of both undergraduate and graduate theses and dissertations. She also gives lectures on grammar and business writings.


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How to Cite

Pajares, G. G., & Bongcales, M. D. (2014). The Philippine and U.S. Expanded Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA): An Analysis. Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 2(2).