The Philippine and U.S. Expanded Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA): An Analysis
Keywords:EDCA, Philippine Territorial Dispute, Philippine Foreign Relations, USPhilippine Relations, and International Relations
This study seeks to explain and analyze the behavior of the Philippines and The
United States in forging the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Treaty (EDCA). It employs International Relations theories namely Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism as frameworks of analysis and interpretation. In the perspective of realism, EDCA is a joint interest of the Philippines and US. EDCA is an act or move of the US as it balances Chinaâ€™s rise to power in order to avoid war and anarchy and protect US interest in the Asia Pacific region. EDCA serves as deterrence to China or to any would-be aggressor to the Philippines in the midst of territorial and maritime disputes. In the point of view of liberalism, the EDCA is a reaffirmation and the strengthening of the alliance of two democratic states promoting military, economic, civic, and humanitarian cooperation and interdependence. In the spirit of constructivism, EDCA is also a product of
democratic ideas and norms that the US and Philippines share as democratic states. The United States serves as a norm entrepreneur to the Philippines and other states in the Pacific Rim. Therefore, EDCA is necessary, practical, and beneficial to the Philippines and the United States.
Baviera, A.S. (2014). â€œImplications of the US-Philippine Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement.â€ Retrieved from Google Scholar on June 7, 2015.
Burchill, S., et al (2009). Theories of International Relations Fourth Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cruz, E.S. (2015). â€œIn Defense of the Spratly Islands: The Philippines Bilateral Defense Policy against A Looming China.â€ Retrieved
from Google Scholar on June 7, 2015.
Daddow, O. (2009). International Relations Theory. London: Sage.
Dalpino, C. (2014). â€œUS â€“Southeast Asia Relations: A Strong Start to the New Year. Comparative Comparative Connections.â€ Retrieved from Google Scholar on June 8, 2015.
De Castro, R. (2014). â€œThe 21st Century Philippineâ€“US Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA): The Philippine Policy in Facilitating the Obama Administration Pivot to Asia.â€ Korean Journal of Defense Analysis. Retrieved from Google Scholar on June 7, 2015.
Duke, D. Freeland. â€œEdward Hallett Carr: Historical Realism and the Liberal Tradition.â€ retrieved from https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index on January 25, 2015.
Fonbuena, C. â€œSenators Pinpoint 7 Flaws in EDCA.â€ Retrieved from www.rappler.com on May 25, 2014.
Khalilzad, Z., ed (2001). â€œ The United States and Asia: Towards a New US Strategy and Force Posture.â€Vol.1315. Rand Corporation. Retrieved from Google Scholar on May 25, 2014.
Lynch, D. â€œChina Challenges Obamaâ€™s Asia Pivot with Rapid Military Build Up.â€ Retrieved on May 30, 2014 from <www.bloomberg.com>.
Manyin, M. E. et al. â€œPivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration Rebalancing Toward Asia.â€ Library of Congress Washington D.C. Congressional Research Service, 2012.
Misalucha, C.G. (2015). â€œThe Role of the US Quasi- Alliances in Asia: Shadow puppetry or Hard Alliances?â€ Retrieved from Google Scholar on June 7, 2015.
Moss, T. â€œ Americaâ€™s Pivot to Asia a Report Card.â€ Retrieved from the diplomat.com on May 30, 2014.
Ott, M. and Allen J. (2015). â€œA Little help from one friend: Security Partnerships and the Rebalance.â€ Retrieved from Google Scholar on June 7, 2015.
Panda, A. (2014). â€œUS-Philippine Enhancement Defense Cooperation Agreement Bolsters Pivot to Asia.â€Retrieved from the diplomat.com on May 30, 2014.
Paul, T.V.(2012) International Relations Theory and Regional Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
â€œQ and A on the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreementâ€ retrieved from www.gov.ph on Janaury 25, 2015.
Romulo, R. R. â€œMissing the point on EDCAâ€ Retrieved from www.philstar.com on May 25, 2014.
Smith, A. â€œUS Imperialismâ€™s Pivot to Asiaâ€ International Socialist Review. Retrieved from <isreview.org> on May 30, 2014.
Shimko, K. (2013). International Relations Perspectives, Controversies and Readings. Singapore: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Ungaro, A. R. (2012).â€ Developments in and obstacles to the US Pivot to Asia: What Alternatives for Europe?â€.Instituto Affari Internazionali. Retrieved from Google Scholar on May 25, 2014.
Viotti, P. R. & Kauppi, M. V. (2013). International Relations and World Politics Fifth Edition. New York: Pearson.
How to Cite
Copyright of the Journal belongs to the University of San Jose-Recoletos