Green Chemistry Education among Senior High School Chemistry Teachers: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Level of Integration
Green Chemistry (GC) integration in environmental education has improved understanding of managing pollutants and their impacts. However, the extent of integration in the science curriculum is not widely known in the Philippines. In this convergent mixedmethod design, the researchers determined the SHS Chemistry teachers’ (n=30) knowledge, perceptions, GC integration in Chemistry topics, and challenges in teaching Green Chemistry Education (GCE). Complementary quantitative and qualitative results showed valid and reliable findings, claiming that teachers have limited preconceived knowledge on GCE but perceived it as an essential part of the teaching-learning process. Awareness of chemical hazards and their impacts on the environment is often demonstrated but rarely elaborated during discussions in Chemistry classes. Problems encountered in teaching GCE were also identified. A moderate positive correlation between the teachers’ knowledge and their GC perception was observed. However, no significant relationship was found when the teachers’ knowledge and perception were correlated to GC integration.
Curriculum enrichment of science,
technology and mathematics education as
a basis for developing entrepreneurship
skills. In N. A. Udofia (Ed.). Developing
entrepreneurial skills through STM education:
50th Annual Conference, 2009 (pp. 26-30).
Anastas, P. & Eghbali, N. (2010). Green chemistry:
Principles and practice. Chemical Society
Reviews, 39(1), 301-312.
Anastas, P.T. & Warner, J.C. (1998). Green chemistry:
Theory and practice. Oxford University Press.
Andraos, J. & Dicks, A. (2012). Green chemistry
in higher education: A review of effective practices.
Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 13, 69-79.
Aubrecht, K.B., Bourgeois, M., Brush, E.J., Mackellar, J., & Wissinger, J.E. (2019).
Integrating green chemistry in the curriculum: Building student skills in
systems thinking, safety, and sustainability.
Journal of Chemical Education, 96(12), 2872–2880.
Auliah, A. & Mulyadi, M. (2018). Indonesian teachers’
perceptions on green chemistry principles: A
case study of a chemical analyst vocational school.
Journal of Physics : Conference series, 1028, 012942.
Ause, R. (2018). Green chemistry in secondary
schools. Physical Sciences Reviews, 4(2).
Ballard, J., & Mooring, S.R. (2021). Cleaning our
world through green chemistry: Introducing
high school students to the principles of
green chemistry using a case-based learning
module. Journal of Chemical Education, 98(4),1290-1295.
Birt, L., Scott, S., Cavers, D., Campbell, C., & Walter, F.
(2016). Member checking: A tool to enhance
trustworthiness or merely a nod to validation?
Qualitative Health Research, 26(13),1802-1811.
Cann, M. & Dickneider, T. (2004). Infusing the green
chemistry curriculum with green chemistry
using real-world examples, web modules, and
atom economy in organic chemistry courses.
Journal of Chemical Education, 81(7), 977-980.
Collins T. (1995). Introducing green chemistry in
teaching and research. Journal of Chemical
Education, 72(11), 965–966.
Creswell, J.W., & Plano-Clark, V.L. (2011). Designing
and conducting mixed methods research (2nd
ed.). Sage Publications.
Eze, C. (2015, May). Enriching chemistry teacher
education curriculum through integration of
green chemistry principles. Knowledge Review,
Gabucan, J., & Sanchez, J.M. (2021). Strategic
intervention material (SIM)-based instruction
in teaching global warming in 9th grade
science. Formatif: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan
MIPA, 11(1), 15-24.
Gross, E.M. (2012). Green chemistry and
sustainability: An undergraduate course for
science and nonscience majors. Journal of
Chemistry Education, 90(4), 429-431.
Haack, J. (2016). Green chemistry education: 25
years of progress and 25 years ahead. ACS
Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering,
Hussei, A.A., & Ahmed, S. D. (2021). Awareness of
the principles of green chemistry among
middle school teachers. Turkish Journal of
Computer and Mathematics Education, 12(7), 475-483.
Hutchison, J.E. (2019). Systems thinking and green
chemistry: Powerful levers for curricular
change and adoption. Journal of Chemical
Education, 96(12) 2777–2783.
Karpudewan, M., & Kulandaismy, Y. (2018).
Malaysian teachers’ insights into
implementing green chemistry experiments
in secondary schools. Current Opinion in
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 13, 113-117.
Kitchens, C., Charney, R., Naistat, D., Farrugia, J.,
Clarens, A., O'Neil, A., Lisowski, C., & Braun,
B. (2006). Completing our education. Green
chemistry in the curriculum. Journal of
Chemical Education, 83(8), 1126.
Kolopajlo, L. (2017). Green chemistry pedagogy.
Physical Sciences Reviews, 2(2), 1-25.
Linkwitz, M. & Eilks, I. (2020). Greening the senior
high school chemistry curriculum: An
action research initiative. In S. O. Obare,
C. H. Middlecamp, & K. E. Peterman (Eds.).
Chemistry education for a sustainable society
volume 1: High school, outreach, & global
perspectives (pp: 55-68). ACS Publications.
Listyarini, R. V., Pamenang, F. D. N., Harta, J.,
Wijayanti, L. W., Asy'ari, M., & Lee, W. (2019).
The integration of green chemistry principles
into small scale chemistry practicum for
senior high school students. Indonesian
Journal of Science Education, 8(3), 371-378.
MacKellar, J.J., Constable, D.J., Kirchhoff, M.M.,
Hutchison, J.E., & Beckman, E. (2020).
Toward a green and sustainable chemistry
education road map. Journal of Chemical
Education, 97(8), 2104–2113.
Matus, K.J., Clark, W.C., Anastas, P.T., & Zimmerman,
J.B. (2012). Barriers to the implementation
of green chemistry in the United States.
Environmental Science & Technology, 46(20),
Nersesian, E., Spryszynski, A., & Lee, M.J. (2019).
Integration of virtual reality in secondary STEM
education. IEEE Integrated STEM Education
Nowell, L.S., Norris, J.M., White, D.E., & Moules, N.J.
(2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the
trustworthiness criteria. International Journal
of Qualitative Methods, 16, 1-13.
Owoyemi, T.E., & Adesina, A.S. (2020). Pre-service
and in-service chemistry teachers’ knowledge
and attitude to green chemistry in Lagos
State, Nigeria. Journal of Curriculum and
Instruction, 13(1), 22-33. file:///C:/Users/imcmain/
Paderes, N.M. (2018). Green chemistry perspective
among STEM 12 senior high school students.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and
Pappas, E., Pappas, J., & Sweeney, D. (2015).
Walking the walk: Conceptual foundations
of the sustainable personality. Journal of
Cleaner Production, 86, 323-334.
Płotka-Wasylka, J., Kurowska-Susdorf, A., Sajid,
M., Namieśnik, J., & Tobiszewski, M. (2018).
Green chemistry in higher education: State
of the art, challenges, and future trends.
ChemSusChem, 11, 2845-2858.
Raymond, I.J., & Raymond, C.M. (2019). Positive
psychology perspectives on social values and
their application to intentionally delivered
sustainability interventions. Sustainability
Science, 14, 1381–1393.
Santos, R.G. & Guidote, A.M., Jr. (2015). The green
chemistry and Filipino approach to high
school experiments in Saint Paul College
Pasig. International Journal of Curriculum
and Instruction, 7(2), 51-57. https://www.
Tabotabo-Picardal, M. & Paño, J.D. (2018).
Facilitating instruction of central dogma of
molecular biology through contextualization.
Journal of Teacher Education and Research, 13(2), 118-132.
Taha, H., Suppiah, V., Khoo, Y., Yahaya, A., Lee, T., &
Muhamad, D. M. (2018). Impact of student
initiated green chemistry experiment
on their knowledge, awareness and
practices of environmental sustainability.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1156, 012022.
Twelve more green chemistry principles. (2001).
Green Chemistry, 3(6), G73. https://doi.org/10.1039/b110187k
Wissinger, J.E., Knutson, C.M., & Javner, C.H. (2020).
Designing impactful green and sustainable
chemistry workshops for high school
teachers. In S. O. Obare, C. H. Middlecamp, &
K. E. Peterman (Eds.). Chemistry education for
a sustainable society volume 1: High school,
outreach, & global perspectives (pp. 1-14). ACS Publications.
Zuin, V.G., Eilks, I., Elschami, M., & Kümmerer, K. (2021).
Education in green chemistry and in
sustainable chemistry: Perspectives towards
sustainability. Green Chemistry, 23(4),1594-1608.
Copyright of the Journal belongs to the University of San Jose-Recoletos