Joint Manipulation Instruction in the Physical Therapy Curriculum of Select Philippine Higher Education Institutions


  • Lily Ann D. Bautista Silliman University
  • Andrei A. Altavas Physical Therapy Advancement Seminars
  • Cyflor E. Putong Silliman University
  • Romel V. Cabazor Velez College



Philippine physical therapy program, Philippine physical therapy HEI, manual therapy curriculum, manipulation, mobilization


The physical therapy graduate must possess the necessary competencies in manipulation as recommended by the World Confederation for Physical Therapy Guidelines for Entry-Level Education. This study aimed to investigate the inclusion of joint manipulation instruction in Philippine Physical Therapy Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and determine the factors affecting its implementation. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was used to collect data and analyze findings. The Department Heads of government recognized physical therapy schools were invited to participate in the study and thirty-five schools responded to the survey. Results showed that there was limited inclusion of manipulation in the physical therapy curriculum of select Philippine HEIs, with lesser application of the techniques in the spine as compared to the extremities. The respondents reported that the lack of qualified faculty in their respective institutions was the primary reason for the limited
inclusion of thrust manipulation in the curriculum.


American Physical Therapy Association, (2009).
Position on thrust manipulation provided
by Physical Therapists.

American Physical Therapy Association (2013).
Physical therapists and direction of mobilization/
manipulation: An educational resource paper.

Assendelft, W.J.J., Bouter, L.M., & Knipschild, P.G.
(1996). Complications of spinal manipulation.
A comprehensive review of the literature. The
Journal of Family Practice, 42(5), 475‐480.

A.T. Still University (n.d.). Doctor of physical therapy

Bang, M.D. & Deyle, G.D. (2000). Comparison of
supervised exercise with and without manual
physical therapy for patients with shoulder
impingement syndrome. JOSPT, 30(3), 126-

Bergman, G.J., Winters, J., Croesier, K.H., Pool, JM,
& Jong, B (2004). Manipulative therapy, in
addition to usual medical care for patients
with shoulder dysfunction and pain: a
randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med,
141(6), 432-9.

Boissonnault, W., Bryan, J.M., & Fox, K.J (2004). Joint
manipulation curricula in physical therapist
professional degree programs. J Orthop
Sports Phys Ther, 34, 171-178.

Boissonnault, W., Noteboom, J.T., & Little, C. (2012)
Thrust Joint Manipulation Curricula in FirstProfessional Physical Therapy Education:
2012 Update. J of Ortho Sports Phys Ther,
45(6), 471-476.

Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy
Education, (2017). Standards and required
elements for accreditation of physical therapist
education programs. http://www.capteonline.

Commission on Higher Education (2009). Revised
implementing guidelines of the commission
on higher education-faculty development
programs (CHED-FDPs) Phase 2 (CMO 26,
s. 2009).

Commission on Higher Education (2017). Policies,
standards and guidelines for the bachelor of
science in physical therapy (BSPT) education
(CMO 55, s. 2017).

Corkery, M.B., Hensley, C.P., Cesario, C., Yen, S.,
& Courtney, C. (2020). Use of thrust joint
manipulation by student physical therapists
in the United States during clinical education
experiences. J Man ManipTher.

Coulter, I.D., Crawford, C., Hurwitz, E.L., Vernon,
H., Khorsan, R., Booth, M.S., & Herman, P.M.
(2018). Manipulation and mobilization for
treating chronic low back pain: a systematic
review and meta-analysis. Spine, 18(5), 866-

Deyle, G.D., Allison, S.C., &Matekel, R.L. (2005).
Physical therapy treatment effectiveness
for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized
comparison of supervised clinical exercise
and manual therapy procedures versus a
home exercise program. Phys Ther, 85(12),

DiFabio, R.P. (1999). Manipulation of the cervical
spine: risks and benefits. Phys Ther, 79(1), 50-65.

Hoeksma, H.L., Dekkar, J., &Ronday, H.K. (2004).
Comparison of manual therapy and exercise
in osteoarthritis of the hip: a randomized
clinical trial. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 51(5),

King, P.M. (2005). The Manipulation Education
Manual: Support for Evidence-Based
Education [Editorial]. Journal of Orthopaedic
& Sports Physical Therapy, 35(7).

International Federation of Orthopedic Manipulative
Therapists, (2011). Educational Standards: A
Historical Perspective. https://www.ifompt.

Masaracchio, M., Kirker, K., States, R., Hanney, W., Liu,
X., &Kolber, M. (2019). Thoracic manipulation
for the management of mechanical neck
pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE, 14(2), e0211877.

Olson, K. (2016). Manual physical therapy of the spine,
2nd Ed. Elsevier. St. Louis, MO.

Pettman, E. (2007). A history of manipulative therapy.
The Journal of Manual and Manipulative
Therapy, 16(3), 165-174.

Philippines.1969. Republic Act no. 5680: An Act
Creating the Board of Examiners for Physical
Therapists and Occupational Therapists.

Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine,
(2017). Clinical Practice Guidelines on
Diagnosis and Management of Low Back Pain
(Updated: 2017).

Rivett, D.A., & Milburn, P. (1997). Complications
arising from spinal manipulative therapy in
New Zealand. Physiotherapy, 83(12), 626-632.

Rotor, ER, &Capio, C.M. (2018). Clinical reasoning of
Filipino physical therapists: Experiences in a
developing nation. Physiotherapy Theory and
Practice, 34(3), 181-193.

Sana, E. A., Roxas, A.B., & Reyes, A.L.T. (2015).
Introduction of outcome-based education
in Philippine health professions education
setting. Philippine Journal of Health Research
and Development, 19(1), 60-74.

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (2020).
Doctor of physical therapy curriculum. https://

Vermeulen, H.M., Rozing, P.M., Obermann,
W.R., Cessie, S.L., &Vlieland, TPMV (2006).
Comparison of high-grade and low-grade
mobilization techniques in the management
of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder:
randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther, 86(3),

Waddell, G., McIntosh, A., Hutchinson, A., Feder,
M.,& Lewis, M. (1999). Low back pain evidence
reviews. London, UK: Royal College of General

Withington, E.T (1928). Hippocrates. With an English
Translation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

World Confederation for Physical Therapy (2011).
WCPT guideline for physical therapist
professional entry-level education. https://




How to Cite

Bautista, L. A. D., Altavas, A. A., Putong, C. E., & Cabazor, R. V. (2020). Joint Manipulation Instruction in the Physical Therapy Curriculum of Select Philippine Higher Education Institutions. Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 8(1), 1–13.