Teachersâ€™ Well-Being Through Work Engagement among Montfortian Schools in Asia
Keywords:work engagement, servant leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, teachersâ€™ well-being
The current study focuses on the well-being of Montfortian teachers in terms of work engagement in five Asian countries such as India, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire from 427 teachers. Differences in the level of work engagement were tested using Analysis of Variance. Regression models examined the significant predictors and organizational outcomes of work engagement. Perceived Organizational Support and Servant Leadership significantly predicted Work Engagement in Singapore and Thailand. Work Engagement had a positive impact on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) directed toward organizations in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines. It had a significant effect on OCB directed toward teachers in Malaysia and Thailand. Work Engagement also predicted Affective commitment in India and Singapore. This study produces cross-national knowledge about work
engagement. Further, it provides a better understanding of teachersâ€™ well-being in terms of work engagement and its effect on organizational variables in the school context.
AkkoÃ§, Ä°., Ã‡alÄ±ÅŸkan, A. &TurunÃ§, Ã–. (2012). Development culture in organizations and the effect of perceived work support on job satisfaction and work performance: the mediating role of trust. Journal of Management and Economics Celal Bayar University the Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences Journal, 19(1), 105-135.
Akhund A.&Shamsul A. (2017). The effects of employee engagement on organizational commitment: A survey on junior executives working in the private sector of Bangladesh.Management Development. 31(1), 54-76.
Ang. J (2018, March 29). Singaporeans continue to be among the least engaged in Asia Pacific. Retrieved from https://www.humanresourcesonline.net/singaporeans-continue-to-be-among-the-least-engaged-in-asia-pacific/.
Bakker, A. B., &Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309â€“328.
Bakker, A. B., & Leiter, M. P. (Eds.). (2010). Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research. Psychology Press.
Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., &Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work and Stress, 22,187-200.
Bakker, A. B., Albrecht, S. L., & Leiter, M. P. (2011). Work engagement: Further reflections on the state of play. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20, 74-88. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2010.546711
Bay, A. B., An, I. L., &Laguador, J. M. (2014). Organizational satisfaction and work engagement of Filipino teachers in an Asian university. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Research, 2(4), 32-41.
Chen, C.-Y., Chen, C.-H., & Li, C.-I. (2013). The influence of leaderâ€™s spiritual values of servant leadership on employee motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(2), 418-438.
Choochom, O. (2016). A causal relationship model of teachersâ€™ work engagement. International Journal of Behavioral Science, 11, 143â€“152.
De Clercq D, Bouckenooghe D, Raja U, Matsyborska G. (2014). Servant leadership and work engagement: The contingency effect of leader-follower social capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25, 183-212.
Delaram Chehelmard (2013). Work engagement among secondary school teachers in Hyderabad, India. Business Sciences International Research Journal,1(2). Retrieved from http://www.imrfjournals.in/pdf/MATHS/BSIRJ-VOLUME-1-ISSUE-2-2013/42.pdf on January 12, 2019.
Deligero, L. J, &Laguador, J. M (2014).Work engagement among employees and its relationship with work unitsâ€™ performance of a higher education institution. International Journal of Management Sciences, 3(12), 909-917.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., &Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499 â€“512.
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500â€“507.
Fox, S., Spector, P. E., Goh, A., Bruursema, K. & Kessler, S. R. (2012). The deviant citizen: Measuring potential positive relations between counterproductive work behaviour and organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 85, 199-220.
Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant leadership: A Journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. New York: Paulist Press.
HÃ¸igaard, R., Giske, R, &Sundsli, K. (2011). Newly qualified teachersâ€™ work engagement and teacher efficacy influences on job satisfaction, burnout, and the intention to quit. European Journal of Teacher Education. Retrieved from EURJTEACH EDUC. 35. 1-11. 10.1080/02619768.2011.633993.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., &Minkov, M. (2011).Kulturyiorganizacje: zaprogramowanieumysÅ‚u. Warszawa: PolskieWydawnictwoEkonomiczne.
Ilagan, J. L. T. & Javier, F. V. (2014). Supervision and other determinants of employee morale: The case of Banco De Oro branches in Batangas City and Bauan, Philippines. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(5), 138-149.
Iyer, R. D. (2016). A study of work engagement among teachers in India. Global Business and Management Research, 8, 34â€“42.
Kataria, A., Garg, P., &Rastogi, R. (2013). Psychological climate and organizational effectiveness: Role of work engagement. The IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12 (3), 33-46.
Kim, W., Kim, J., Woo, H., Park, J., Jo, J., Park, S.-H., & Lim, S. Y. (2017). The relationship between work engagement and organizational commitment: Proposing research agendas through a review of empirical literature. Human Resource Development Review, 16(4), 350â€“376. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484317725967
Klassen, R. M., Aldhafri, S., Mansfield, C. F., Purwanto, E., Siu, A. F. Y., Wong, M. W., & Woods-McConney, A. (2012). Teachersâ€™ engagement at work: An international validation study. The Journal of Experimental Education, 80(4), 317-337. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2012.678409
Krishnan, J., & Mary, V. S. (2012). Perceived organisational supportâ€“an overview on its antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2, 2-3.
Liden, R. C., Panaccio, A., Meuser, J. D., Hu, J., & Wayne, S. J. 2014. Servant leadership: Antecedents, processes, and outcomes. In D. V. Day (Ed.) The Oxford handbook of leadership and organizations: 357â€“ 379. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161-177.
Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3-30. Doi: 1754-9426/08.
Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993)Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538-551.
Montfortian Education Charter (2010). Montfortian education for the 21st century. Casa Generalisizia, Rome, Italy, 36-41.
Nurul, A.R., Jo, A.H. ,Siew, I.N., and Murali, S. (2015) Job demands & job resources: Predicting burnout and work engagement among teachers. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research (IPEDR), 84 . Retrieved from http://www.ipedr.com/vol84/017-E00026.pdf on January 12, 2019.
Organ, D., Podsakoff, P., & Mackenzie, S. (2006). Organizational citizenship behaviours: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Thousand Oaks: Sage publications.
Ã–zdevecioÄŸlu, M. (2003). A research on determining the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. DokuzEylul University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Journal, 18 (2), 113-130.
Pakarinen, E., Kiuru, N., Lerkkanen, M., Poikkeus, A., Siekkien, M., & Nurmi, J. (2010). Classroom organization and teacher stress predict learning motivation in kindergarten teacher well-being 20 children. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 25, 281-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10212-010-0025-6
Pasion-Caiani, T. S.(2015).Examination of employee alignment as a predictor of work engagement. Master's Theses. 4554. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31979/etd.ydep-ks65
Pati, S. P. (2012). Development of a measure of employee engagement. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 48 (1), 94-104.
Pati, S. P., & Kumar, P. (2010). Employee Engagement: Role of self efficacy: Organizational support and supervisor support. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(1), 126-137.
Rayan, B. A. (2013). Montfortian technical vocational education and training schools in Asia: Charism and performance. European Social Sciences Research Journal, 1(4), 254-263.
Rayan, A. & Dr, J. and Wong, J. (2018). Organizational citizenship behavior among Montfortian teachers: A cross national comparative study in Asia. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324965856_ORGANIZATIONAL_CITIZENSHIP_BEHAVIOR_AMONG_MONTFORTIAN_TEAHERS_A_CROSS_NATIONAL_COMPARATIVE_STUDY_IN_ASIA/ on November 24, 2019
Rayan, BA., Wong JP., Banas JL. P (2015, December) Influence of servant leadership among government employees in the province of Romblon, Philippines, International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 2(12),73-81.
Roozeboom, M.B. &Schelvis, R. (2015). Work engagement: drivers and effects. Retrieved from http://oshwiki.eu/wiki/Work engagement:_drivers_and_effects
Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2011). A self-determination theory perspective on social, institutional, cultural, and economic supports for autonomy and their importance for well-being. In V.I. Chirkov (Ed.). Human autonomy in cross-cultural context, 45-64. Netherlands: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9667-8_3
Saks, A. M., &Rotman, J. L. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619.
Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Work engagement what do we know and where do we go? Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 14 (1), 3-10.
Schaufeli, W., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293â€“ 315.
Schaufeli, W. & Bakker, A. (2004). Utrecht work engagement scale. Utrecht University: Occupational Health Psychology Unit.
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Bakker, A.B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout and: A confirmative analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71-92.
Schaufeli, W.B. & Salanova, M. (2007), â€œWork engagement: An emerging psychological concept and its implications for organizationsâ€, in Gilliland, S.W., Steiner, D.D. and Skarlicki, D.P. (Eds). Research in social issues in management, 135-177. Greenwich: Information Age Publishers.
Shimazu A., Schaufeli W. B., Kubota K.,& Kawakami N. (2012). Do workaholism and work engagement predict employee well-being and performance in opposite directions? Ind. Health, 50, 316â€“321. 10.2486/indhealth.MS1355
Shuck, M. B., Rocco, T. S., &Albornoz, C. A. (2011). Exploring employee engagement from the employee perspective: Implications for HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35, 300-325. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090591111128306
Steger, M. F., Littman-Ovadia, H., Miller, M., Menger, L.,&Rothmann, S. (2013). Engaging in work even when it is meaningless: Positive affective disposition and meaningful work interact in relation to work engagement. Journal of Career Assessment, 21(2), 348-361.
Tepayakul, R. & Rinthaisong, I. (2018). Job satisfaction and employee engagement among human resources staff of Thai private higher education institutions.The Journal of Behavioral Science, Vol. 13, Issue 2, 68-81.
Vorina, A., SimoniÄ, M., &Vlasova, M. (2017). An analysis of the relationship between job satisfaction and employee engagement. Economic Themes, 55(2), 243â€“262.
Winston, B. & Fields, D., (2015). Seeking and measuring the essential behaviors of servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(4), 413-434, https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-10-2013-0135
Zeng, G., Chen, X., Cheung, H. Y., & Peng, K. (2019). Teachers' growth mindset and work engagement in the Chinese educational context: Well-being and perseverance of effort as mediators. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 839. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00839
How to Cite
Copyright of the Journal belongs to the University of San Jose-Recoletos