The Community of Inquiry Instructional Strategies Impact on Student Satisfaction on Remote Learning




remote learning, online learning, Community of Inquiry (CoI), course design, instructional strategies, perceived learning, student satisfaction


The COVID-19 restrictions compelled institutions worldwide to transition into the remote teaching-learning modality abruptly. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of remote teaching and learning strategies are scant. With the recent shift to this new learning mode, little is known about the fulfillment of learning outcomes and student satisfaction. This research examines the impact of the teaching-learning course design and instructional strategies as implemented by this faculty researcher last school year 2020-2021. It intends to provide practical guidance for teachers aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of their remote teaching/strategies. The research is both quantitative (causal) and qualitative design. A total of 104 management students from a Philippine state university participated in an online survey. The quantitative investigation assessed the influence of the independent variables – the Community of Inquiry (CoI) presence strategies, course design, and instructional strategies on students’ perceived learning and satisfaction, utilizing the CoI framework and adopting scales from online teaching.


Arbaugh, J. B., Cleveland-Innes, M., Diaz, S. R., Garrison, D. R., Ice, P., Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. P. (2008). Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of the community of inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample. The Internet and Higher Education, 11(3-4), 133–136.

Caskurlu, S., Maeda, Y., Richardson, J. C., & Lv, J. (2020). A meta-analysis addressing the relationship between teaching presence and students’ satisfaction and learning. Computers & Education, 157, 103966.

Castellanos-Reyes, D. (2020). 20 years of the Community of Inquiry Framework. TechTrends, 64(4), 557–560.

Dunlap, J. C., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2018). Online educators’ recommendations for teaching online: Crowdsourcing in action. Open Praxis, 10(1), 79–89.

Eom, S. B., & Ashill, N. J. (2016). The determinants of students’ perceived learning outcomes and satisfaction in University Online Education: An update*. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 14(2), 185–215.

Garrison, D. R. (2009). Communities of inquiry in online learning. In P. L. Rogers, G. A. Berg, J. V. Boettcher, C. Howard, L. Justice, & K. D. Schenk (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Distance Learning (2nd ed., pp. 352–355). Idea Group Inc.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87–105.

Gray, J., & DiLoreto, M. (2016). The effects of student engagement, student satisfaction, and perceived learning in online learning environments. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 11(1), 98–119.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (Pls-Sem) (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2–24.

Harding, J. (2015). Making comparisons of interview data and drawing out themes: Experiences of working in Higher Education. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. EDUCAUSE Review.

Lee, J. (2014). An exploratory study of effective online learning: Assessing satisfaction levels of graduate students of mathematics education associated with human and design factors of an online course. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(1), 111–132.

Lowenthal, P. R., & Dunlap, J. C. (2018). Investigating students’ perceptions of instructional strategies to establish Social Presence. Distance Education, 39(3), 281–298.

Miller, T., MacLaren, K., & Xu, H. (2020). Online learning: Practices, perceptions, and Technology. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La Revue Canadienne De l’Apprentissage Et De La Technologie, 46(1).

Patwardhan, V., Rao, S., Thirugnanasambantham, C., & Prabhu, N. (2020). Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework and course design as predictors of satisfaction in emergency remote teaching: Perspectives of hospitality management students. Journal of E-Learning And Knowledge Society, 16(4), 94–103.

Peel, K. (2020). A Beginner's Guide to Applied Educational Research using Thematic Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 25(1), 2.

So, H.-J., & Brush, T. A. (2008). Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors. Computers & Education, 51(1), 318–336.

Stewart, M. K. (2019). The community of inquiry survey: An assessment instrument for online writing courses. Computers and Composition, 52, 37–52.

Tanis, C. J. (2020). The seven principles of online learning: Feedback from faculty and alumni on its importance for teaching and learning. Research in Learning Technology, 28.

United Nations. (2021). The sustainable development goals report 2021.

Watson, F. F., Bishop, M. C., & Ferdinand-James, D. S. (2017). Instructional strategies to help online students learn: Feedback from online students. TechTrends, 61(5), 420–427.

World Bank. (2020, September 1). The COVID-19 crisis response: Supporting tertiary education for continuity, adaptation, and innovation.




How to Cite

Chaves, M. G. F. (2022). The Community of Inquiry Instructional Strategies Impact on Student Satisfaction on Remote Learning. Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 10(1), 191–204.