Understanding the Suicide Phenomenon from the Perspectives of the Loss Survivors
Keywords:suicide, survivors, bereavement, psychosocial, intervention, debriefing
The study is descriptive qualitative research that illustrates the circumstances and new dynamics contributing to the never-ending suicide occurrences. It described first-hand real-life experiences of the suicide-loss survivors to determine the contexts, reasons, and implications of suicide and recommend community-based intervention strategies. Purposive-criterion and convenient sampling methods were used to determine the respondents. Focused group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted to gather data analyzed using Braun & Clarkeâ€™s six-phase guide. The findings revealed that the life experiences of the respondents are characterized by regret, pain, and bereavement. Suicides were committed due to dysfunctional families, economic hardships, breakdown of relationships, and drug abuse. The pain of suicide affected both the victim and their survivors and occurs within the psychosocial sphere. Interventions should therefore employ a familial, communitarian, and inter-institutional approach. Local Government Units (LGUs) are recommended to initiate a reach-out community-based suicide intervention program and debriefing services.
Adrian, M., McCauley, E., Berk, M. S., Asarnow, J. R., Korslund, K., Avina, C., Gallop, R., & Linehan, M. M. (2019). Predictors and moderators of recurring selfâ€harm in adolescents participating in a comparative treatment trial of psychological interventions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(10), 1123â€“1132. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13099
Almendrala, A. (2015, March 17). Rural youth suicides almost double rates in urban areas. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/rural-youth-suicides_n_6867420
Avenido, J. M., & Barabat, E. O. (2013). A fractal view on the suicide incidence of countries. Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 1(2), 135â€“144. https://doi.org/10.32871/rmrj1301.02.16
Bachmann, S. (2018). Epidemiology of suicide and the psychiatric perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7), 1425. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071425
Bilsen, J. (2018). Suicide and youth: Risk factors. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00540
Borres, M., Orias, J., & Mercado, A. (2014). A mathematical model on social integration explaining global suicide rate among men and women. Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 2(1), 49â€“54. https://doi.org/10.32871/rmrj1402.01.06
Bosticco, C. A. (2002). Stories of grief: Narratives by bereaved parents [Masteral thesis, University of Dayton]. Ecommons.
Bowden, C. J. (2017). Silence after Suicide: A Phenomenological Study of Young Menâ€™s Experience of Losing a Close Male Friend. Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington. Thesis. https://doi.org/10.26686/wgtn.17064212
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77â€“101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Butuyan, J. R. (2016, July 1). Seven Filipinos commit suicide every day. Inquirer.Net. https://opinion.inquirer.net/95929/seven-filipinos-commit-suicide-every-day#ixzz4vAwsfZT8
Camus, A. (1991). The myth of Sisyphus and other essays. Vintage Books.
Canubida, N. M., Herrera, J. M., & Talacero, G. S. (2017). Suicidal ideation differences among undergraduate college students of Cebu Doctorsâ€™ [Masterâ€™s thesis, Cebu Doctors' University]. HerdinPlus. https://www.herdin.ph/index.php/herdin-home?view=research&cid=67770
Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: A study in sociology. Routledge.
Espositoâ€Smythers, C., Wolff, J. C., Liu, R. T., Hunt, J. I., Adams, L., Kim, K., Frazier, E. A., Yen, S., Dickstein, D. P., & Spirito, A. (2019). Familyâ€focused cognitive behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents in suicidal crisis with coâ€occurring risk factors: A randomized trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(10), 1133â€“1141. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13095
Flores, K., & Caballes, D. (2013, April 27). Youth Suicide and the Affected Witnesses: Case Studies of Cebu City during the Year 2007-2011. [Conference session]. 5th International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. Songkla, Thailand. http://fs.libarts.psu.ac.th/research/conference/proceedings-5/1.3-Youth%20Suicide%20and%20the%20Affected%20Witnesses%20Case%20Studies%20of%20Cebu%20City%20during%20the%20Year%202007-2011.pdf
Frankl, V. E. (1992). Man's search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy (4th ed.). Beacon Press.
Freud, S. (1920a). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. Horace Liveright.
Freud, S. (1920b). The Ego and the id. Norton & Company.
Garraza, L. G., Kuiper, N., Goldston, D., McKeon, R., & Walrath, C. (2019). Longâ€term impact of the Garrett Lee Smith youth suicide prevention program on youth suicide mortality, 2006â€“2015. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(10), 1142â€“1147. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13058
Gomez, F. (2019, October 1). Warning signs of suicide. CNN Philippines. https://www.cnnphilippines.com/lifestyle/2019/10/1/warning-signs-suicide.html
Harvard Health Publishing. (2019, May 29) Left behind after suicide. https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/Left-behind-after-suicide
Hobbes, T. (1994). Leviathan: With selected variants from the Latin edition of 1668. (E. M. Curley, Ed.). Hackett Publishing Company.
Holkar, M. (2019, February 5). Financial difficulties and suicide: The numbers - money and mental health. Money and Mental Health Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://www.moneyandmentalhealth.org/financial-difficulties-suicide/
Ibrahim, N., Amit, N., Che Din, N., & Ong, H. C. (2017). Gender differences and psychological factors associated with suicidal ideation among youth in Malaysia. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, Volume 10, 129â€“135. https://doi.org/10.2147/prbm.s125176
Itao, A. D. S., & Pederi, R. E. (2021). Factors affecting the suicide phenomenon in Cebu City, Philippines, based on the responses of the victimsâ€™ significant others. Agathos, 12(2), 235â€“245. https://www.agathos-international-review.com/issue12_2/26.Itao%20et%20al.pdf
Jackson, J. (2003). Sos: A handbook for survivors of suicide. American Association of Suicidology. https://suicidology.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/SOS_handbook.pdf
Jordan, J. R. (2001). Is suicide bereavement different? A reassessment of the literature. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31(1), 91â€“102. https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.220.127.116.1110
Juergens, J. (2022, January 11). Addiction and suicide. Addiction Center. https://www.addictioncenter.com/addiction/addiction-and-suicide/
Makati Medical Center. (2019, March 6). Helping someone struggling with suicidal thoughts. https://www.makatimed.net.ph/news/helping-someone-struggling-with-suicidal-thoughts
Medical University of Vienna. (2016, September 7). People in unhappy relationships more likely to have suicidal thoughts. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160907081921.htm
Mehlum, L., Ramleth, R. K., TÃ¸rmoen, A. J., Haga, E., Diep, L. M., Stanley, B. H., Miller, A. L., Larsson, B., Sund, A. M., & GrÃ¸holt, B. (2019). Long term effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy versus enhanced usual care for adolescents with selfâ€harming and suicidal behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(10), 1112. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13077
Mill, J. S. (2017). Liberty. https://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/mill1859_1.pdf
Police Regional Office. (2019). Suicide Incidents period covered C.Y. 2014 to August 25, 2017. Philippine National Police: Regional Investigation and Detective Management Branch Division, Central Visayas
ReachOut Australia. (n.d.). Grief and loss: Understanding mental health. https://schools.au.reachout.com/articles/grief-and-loss
Rousseau, JJ. (2017). The Social Contract. https://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/rousseau1762.pdf
Sabalo, W. (2019, September 18). Pro-Central Visayas records 17-18 suicides a month. Sunstar. https://www.sunstar.com.ph/ampArticle/1823664
Schimelpfening, N. (2021, February 19). Why do people commit suicide? Verywell Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/why-do-people-commit-suicide-1067515
Seay, N. (2019, November 4). How are addiction, depression and suicide linked? American Addiction Centers. https://www.rehabs.com/blog/how-are-addiction-depression-and-suicide-linked/
Serani, D. (2013). Understanding survivors of suicide loss. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/two-takes-depression/201311/understanding-survivors-suicide-loss
Smith, S. (2019, October 22). Suicide rate for kids ages 10 to 14 nearly tripled in last decade: CDC. The Christian Post. https://www.christianpost.com/news/suicide-rate-kids-ages-10-to-14-nearly-tripled-last-decade-cdc.html
Sveen, C.-A., & Walby, F. A. (2008). Suicide survivors' mental health and grief reactions: A systematic review of Controlled Studies. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 38(1), 13â€“29. https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.2008.38.1.13
Tacio, H. (2018, October 11). Suicide snatches one life every 40 seconds. BusinessMirror. https://businessmirror.com.ph/2018/10/11/suicide-snatches-one-life-every-40-seconds/
Thaiger. (2020, January 11). Thailand is the leading Asean nation in annual suicide rates. https://thethaiger.com/news/national/thailand-leads-asean-nations-in-annual-suicide-rate
Turchi, G. P., Iudici, A., & Faccio, E. (2019). From suicide due to an economic-financial crisis to the management of Entrepreneurial Health: Elements of a biographical change management service and clinical implications. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00426
World Health Organization. (2021). Suicide worldwide in 2019: Global health estimates. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240026643
World Health Organization. (2014). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241564779
Wyllie, C., Platt, S., Brownlie, J., Chandler, A., Conolly, S., Evans, R., Kenelly, B., Kirtley, O., Moore, G., O'Connor, R., & Scourfield, J. (2012, January 1). Men, suicide and society: Why disadvantaged men in mid-life die by suicide: Semantic scholar. Samaritans. https://media.samaritans.org/documents/Samaritans_MenSuicideSociety_ResearchReport2012.pdf
Yanek, C. (2015, April 29). 12 ways to deal with the death of a loved one. Bustle. https://www.bustle.com/articles/77203-12-ways-to-cope-with-death-when-you-lose-someone-you-love-according-to-someone-whos
How to Cite
Copyright of the Journal belongs to the University of San Jose-Recoletos